The body driven fly is typically used by 100 & 200 athletes while the shoulder driven fly is often seen in 50 & 100 athletes. Phelps vs. Cavic is a classic example that displays the difference. Phelps uses large undulations from his head and chest to drive his stroke forward while Cavic’s head and chest stay closer to the surface and uses very little undulation.
When we talk about injury prevention, it is extremely important to differentiate between injury prevention, and training to get faster. If injury prevention is synonymous with swimming, you want to start the early season with higher loads and more variations, and successively do little less the closer it gets to your taper meets, especially if you have, or have had a past shoulder injury...
Assuming that an individual is healthy, the main energy source that is utilized during exercise are mainly carbs and fats. The ratio of the utilization varies by the training intensity and duration. This ratio is called the Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER) or Respiratory Quotient (RQ). At a lower intensity, fat is the main source to produce energy. As training intensity goes . . .
Maximal power during a movement, such as the swim stroke, is determined by the contractile capacity of the muscles involved. The contractile capacity of a muscle is primarily influenced by fiber type composition (Cormie, McGuigan, & Newton, 2011). There are three main fiber types in humans—Type I, Type IIa, and Type IIx . . .
In a typical warm-up, movement preparation is a key element to reducing injury and optimizing performance. Movement preparation includes activating small stabilizing muscles and engaging the large muscle groups that are needed to perform the movement. We use shoulder stabilization exercises, core stabilization (planks) and mobility squats to get the joints and muscles ready to perform work in the weight room and in the water.
...improvements in swimming performance following respiratory muscle training all used subjects that were adolescents or extremely mediocre swimmers (i.e Kilding et al. used male and female swimmers age ~19 with an average 100 SCM time of roughly 1:04). On the other hand, Mickleborough et al. and Clanton et al. used elite swimmers and found no difference. This may show that younger swimmers have potentially weaker inspiratory muscles or that mediocre level swimmers may need to improve their inspiratory muscles to improve their performance.
80 Australian elite swimmers aged 13-25 completed 23 clinical tests, of which 53 swimmers underwent an additional MRI examination: 91% of the swimmers reported shoulder pain; 54% unilateral and 37% bilateral pain. During activity, 80% reported pain and 70% specified the pain occurring during overhead activity. Along with the pain, shoulder stiffness was seen in 68% of the swimmers. MRI findings show that supraspinatus tendon thickness is correlated with the level of training (P < .0001), years in training, and hours per week in training (P < .01).
A proper warm-up as defined by McGowan et al. (2016) includes four key objectives of a pre-competition warm-up as: 1) physiological, 2) kinesthetic, 3) mental, and 4) tactical. It is important for an athlete to have a wide assortment of exercises and procedures in order to properly prepare the body for any physical activity.
Torque is simply moment arm multiplied by muscle force, or a rotational force. Kelly’s definition may be slightly ambiguous because he is referring to generating torque specifically within the hip and shoulder capsule to eliminate capsular slack within the socket, which tend.
Figure 2, by Kreamer and colleagues, illustrates an overlook on neuromuscular development throughout an athletic lifetime. It is clear that a young athlete should first and foremost have fun. If a balance can be found between fun and instructive, we can be setting young swimmers up for an intense teenage era of training.